Cicero's Classical Format for Persuasive
Classical arrangement (simplified):
The Introduction is where you introduce your standpoint.
The Statement of Facts is put in terms that even your
opponents cannot deny.
The Division is a discussion of at what exact point you stop
agreeing with the opponent, and start disagreeing (what it is you
REALLY disagree on).
The Proof is where you present the arguments and
evidence you have to
support your standpoint.
The Refutation is where you bring up your opponents'
main arguments and prove they are wrong.
Caution: Refutation is not about YOU, it is all about
your OPPONENTS and their arguments (and why they are wrong).
The Conclusion may include an appeal to
emotion (pathos). In modern argument, it may also include a discussion
of what good things will happen if the audience accepts your
argument, what bad things will befall them if they do not agree, and
a clear statement of what you want your audience to do.
O.W. Rev. 10/13
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