External Links

This page, while it is useful as a reference to see what is most heavily focused on in the class (Iíd like to think, anyways), falls somewhat short if used as a general reference guide. Because of this, we have scoured the Web to produce a list of websites that provide background or extended information on a topic, in case something isnít clear on this site.

Note that these sites are given to me and placed directly on the page; if a link doesnít work, report it to me, and Iíll fix it.  Iíll resolve most non-functional links by myself given a little time.

The Genetic Elements of Prokaryotes

If you want to review some of the general features of the bacteria chromosome, the following website would be a good tool.

The following website includes very basic information about DNA and the prokaryotic genome and would be a good information source for reviewing purposes.

This website is fairly decent and gives a little information about the fertility factor and bacterial conjugation

This website provides an informational outline that is very brief and does not include depth. It can be used to look over and review some facts.

lac operon


This link is really good for understanding the components to the lac operon using visuals and the operon works without mutations.


Can be used for information regarding induction in the lac operon and consititutive mutants.


Only provides a good visual for induction, but hardly gives an explanation.


Includes distinctions between structural and regulatory genes, describes the operator and the inducer, and gives an explanation on catabolite repression.


Provides a mediocre explanation of the operon, but provides good figures.

ara operon


Gives a good and brief explanation of the operonís struction and function.


This website is similar to the previous website.

http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/GenWeb/Molecular/Molecular_Biology_Syllabus/gene_articles. html


This website is not as brief as the others, but it provides a better and detailed explanation of the operon, its positive regulation, and catabolite repression.

trp operon

www.uwec.edu/academic/curric/scalesjb/MolBiol/Trp%20operon%20at.../slide0001.ht ml


This website gives a good explanation and clear figures for the operonís struction and attenuation.


Gives a very good explanation of the trp operon as a repressible system, its control, and its gene and gene function; however, it does not provide good visuals.


This website provides in depth explanations of attenuation in the trp operon.



Provides an in depth discussion of translation, including tRNA structure and the Wobble hypothesis.


Simply gives visualization to protein synthesis in general.


This website covers about the same amount of information in the first link provided for translation, except this website seems better because the information is presented in a more orderly fashion and seems easier to understand.


This website includes a lot of information regarding protein synthesis, with very good visuals and explanations.

http://www.inf.ethz.ch/~vonrohr/Courses/CompBio/Script/week1/BasicBiologyMain/no de8.html

Gives an extremely brief explanation of transcription, translation, and protein synthesis.



This website includes a clear definition of transposons.


This website covers mutations and selection briefly and includes a very brief discussion of phenotypic consequences of mutations (the formation of auxotrophs and prototrophs).
http://plantbio.berkley.edu/~hofmeist/courses/microlecture201/micronotes/11_21_01. htm

This link will help with bacterial genetic nomenclature, and clear up relations between genotypes and phenotypes.

This website is a more detailed information sources than the previous website given about mutations. It provides more visual explanations and some clear definitions and brief charted explanations regarding the basis of mutations, including different types of mutations, the origin of mutations, and bacterial transformation and conjugation.